Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus that has been considered a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been stated that various extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, including Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, plus some bioactive aspects of nattokinase, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the usage of Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for thousands of years, studies revealing its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to become anti-aging are extremely few in contrast to the big quantities of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect and its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is actually a basidiomycete white rot fungus often called “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was first attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” as soon as 100 BC, and observed to market health, increase vigor and vitality as well as prolong lifespan. The original Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum as being an herbal medicine that may help people to get the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum has long been used as a folk medicine for improving health and is considered the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum indicated that it contains 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The primary active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are located in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are numerous extractions of nattokinase as a result of specific extracting procedures used during production and also the part of plant it gets from. Regarding to the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the key Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum and the extract from your mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is almost always with a decline in bodily physiological function, resulting in a heightened inclination towards age-related disorders. It is really an inevitable physiological process, however the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated after many decades. One of the numerous theories related to aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stand out the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates as a function of age, bringing about disruption from the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination leading to oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues including the brain, heart and skeleton muscle tend to be more susceptible to aging, in contrast to other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are very important inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is determined by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and also the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production with an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional modifications in the myocardium, including myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . Inside the brain, the accumulation of free radicals and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity affect cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the start of some neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, among others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging can also be closely connected with bringing about structural and functional defects within the immune system. Immunological dysfunction could possibly be the cause of the increased susceptibility in the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, which can be commonly observed in the elderly.
Gradual lack of cognition is probably the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is definitely the main cause of cognitive deficits and may be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the contrary, age-associated cognitive deficits do not mean neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq brought on by diseases. The demise of neurons caused by the activation of cell death programs is active in the procedure of age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been used being an elixir for thousands of years, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are only the tip in the iceberg. Whether Dodder Seed Extract exerts an anti-aging effect remains unknown. Therefore, this review aims to lay the floor for fully elucidating the possibility mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to advertise its clinical application being an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related outcomes of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are taken from various areas of Ganoderma lucidum.